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Foot & Ankle International (FAI), in publication since 1980, is the official journal of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS). This monthly medical journal emphasizes surgical and medical management as it relates to the foot and ankle with a specific focus on reconstructive, trauma, and sports-related conditions utilizing the latest technological advances.
 
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The importance of the rotational profile of the first metatarsal is increasingly recognized in the surgical planning of hallux valgus. However, rotation in the normal population has only been measured in small series. We aimed to identify the normal range of first metatarsal rotation in a large series using weightbearing computed tomography (WBCT).…
 
In Weber B/SER2-4 ankle fractures, assessment with weightbearing radiographs to ascertain stability of the ankle mortise has been advised. However, no previous studies report whether this method leads to preservation of normal ankle congruence. The purpose is to evaluate equivalence of ankle congruence of injured ankles after fracture union, vs the…
 
Previous studies have demonstrated success in using autogenous bone graft for arthrodesis in patients with failed surgeries of the hallux. These patients have several causes for pain and dysfunction preoperatively, including a shortened first ray, nonunion, and poor hallux alignment. In conclusion, the use of an interposition patellar wedge allogra…
 
Large structural bone deficits after a failed ankle arthroplasty or avascular necrosis (AVN) of the talus present a complex reconstruction challenge. The aim of this study was to report the results of patients undergoing an ankle arthrodesis or tibiotalocalcaneal fusion using a femoral head allograft (FHA). In conclusion, the use of FHA to treat ta…
 
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is increasingly being used for bunion correction, but limited patient outcome data have been reported for third-generation minimally invasive chevron/Akin (MICA) techniques. The aim of this study was to report on radiographic outcomes, pain control, satisfaction, learning curve, and complication rates in a consecuti…
 
Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is advocated over ankle arthrodesis to preserve ankle motion (ROM). Clinical and gait analysis studies have shown significant improvement after TAA. The role and outcomes of TAA in stiff ankles, which have little motion to be preserved, has been the subject of limited investigation. This investigation evaluated the mi…
 
In the past, posterior malleolus fragments (PMFs) commonly have been indirectly reduced and fixed when fragments involve 25% or more of the tibial articular surface, while smaller fragments were left unfixed. The posterior approach has become increasingly popular and allows fixation of even smaller fragments. This study compares clinical outcome fo…
 
The deep deltoid ligament (DDL) is a key stabilizer to the medial ankle and ankle mortise and can be disrupted in ligamentous supination external rotation type IV (LSER4) ankle fractures. The purpose of this study was to define the medial clear space (MCS) measurement on injury mortise radiographs that corresponds with complete DDL injury. In concl…
 
Few studies have reported the outcomes following minimally invasive medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy (MDCO) for correction of pes planovalgus deformities. In conclusion, patients with higher ASA classification, current tobacco use, and higher BMI were at higher risk for osteotomy healing complications after minimally invasive MDCO procedures…
 
Patient-reported outcome measures are an increasingly important tool for assessing the impact of treatments orthopedic surgeons render. Despite their importance, they can present a burden. We examined the validity and utility of a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) method to reduce the number of questions on the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAA…
 
Tendinopathy is a debilitating tendon disorder that affects millions of Americans and costs billions of health care dollars every year. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a known tissue damage signaling molecule, has been identified as a mediator in the development of tendinopathy due to mechanical overloading of tendons in mice. Metformin (Met), a…
 
Jones fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal are predisposed to delayed union and nonunion due to a tenuous blood supply. Solid intramedullary (IM) screw fixation is recommended to improve healing, traditionally followed by delayed weightbearing (DWB). However, early weightbearing (EWB) postoperatively may facilitate functional recovery. The pu…
 
Aligning patient and surgeon expectations may improve patient satisfaction and outcomes. This study aimed to assess differences in expectations of foot and ankle surgery between patients and their surgeons. In conclusion, more than two-thirds of patients had significantly higher expectations than their surgeons. Higher BMI was associated with highe…
 
In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel implant for the surgical management of hallux rigidus. Though recent studies have evaluated the safety and efficacy of the implant, no study has compared outcomes following PVA implantation with those following traditional joint-preserving proc…
 
Characteristics of responders, or those who achieve a clinical improvement above the level of a minimal clinically important difference, have not been defined for total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). The purpose of this study was to determine patient characteristics that distinguish possible responders from possible nonresponders after TAA using criteri…
 
Total ankle replacement (TAR) is becoming a more common alternative to ankle arthrodesis for the improvement of pain and function in end-stage arthritis of the ankle. The effects of end-stage arthritis of the ankle are similar to those of end-stage hip arthritis. There is a paucity of literature on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) followin…
 
Treatment for post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) of the ankle remains challenging. Distraction arthroplasty (DA) is an alternative for patients who are averse to or poor candidates for arthrodesis or joint replacement. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of microfracture (MFX) and concentrated bone marrow aspirate (CBMA) on the outc…
 
Surgery for degenerative foot and ankle conditions often results in a lengthy recovery. Current outcome measures do not accurately assess postoperative mobility, especially in older patients. The Life-Space Assessment (LSA), a questionnaire quantifying patients’ mobility after a medical event, was used in this study to assess perioperative mobility…
 
Although the benefit of primary intramedullary (IM) screw fixation of fifth metatarsal Jones fractures in athletes is clear, limited data support its use in conventional patient populations. This study evaluated radiographic and functional outcomes following primary IM screw fixation in a series of Jones fractures to determine if similar excellent …
 
Ankle osteoarthritis is a significant cause of pain and disability. Despite the effectiveness of treatments, a subset of patients remains with persistent pain and functional limitations. The purpose of this study was to use preoperative patient-reported outcome measures to predict which ankle osteoarthritis patients would be most likely to experien…
 
Hallux valgus (HV) is a triplanar deformity of the first ray including pronation of the first metatarsal with subluxation of the sesamoids. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a first tarsometatarsal fusion (modified Lapidus technique), without preoperative knowledge of pronation measured on weightbearing computed tomographic (CT) scans…
 
We investigated the association between hindfoot residual malalignment assessed on weightbearing computed tomography (WBCT) images and the development of periprosthetic cysts (PPCs) after total ankle replacement (TAR). We hypothesized that PPCs would be found predominantly medially in the varus configuration and laterally in the valgus configuratio…
 
Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) continues to exhibit a relatively high incidence of complications and need for revision surgery compared to knee and hip arthroplasty. One common mode of failure in TAA is talar component subsidence. This may be caused by disruption in the talar blood supply related to the operative technique. The purpose of this stud…
 
Outcomes of total ankle replacement for the treatment of end-stage ankle arthritis continue to improve. Debate continues whether a mobile-bearing total ankle replacement (MB-TAR) or a fixed-bearing total ankle replacement (FB-TAR) is superior, with successful outcomes reported long term for MB-TAR and at intermediate- to long-term follow-up for new…
 
Hallux rigidus is the most common arthritic condition in the foot. First metatarsophalangeal joint cheilectomy produces satisfactory results in retrospective studies with reported good to excellent results in up to 97% and pain relief and function in 92%. The results of cheilectomy for higher grades of hallux rigidus are less favorable. The purpose…
 
Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is an increasingly selected treatment for end-stage ankle arthritis; however, failure and revision of the tibial and talar components remains an issue. Although multiple risk factors have been shown to contribute to early component revision, no study has looked at combining such risk factors into a predictive model th…
 
Ankle and hindfoot kinematics following total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) are poorly understood and it is unclear whether patients can replicate physiologic motion after TAA. Furthermore, the effect of implant position on TAA kinematics is unknown. The objective of this study was to compare ankle and hindfoot kinematics pre- and post-TAA during simula…
 
Arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint has been shown to be effective in alleviating pain and correcting deformity in hallux rigidus. However, outcomes in specific sports and physical activities remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess sports and physical activities in young patients following first MTP joint arthrodesi…
 
Evidence on the management of and outcomes from periprosthetic fractures about a total ankle replacement (TAR) are limited. The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm for the management of patients with postoperative periprosthetic fractures about a TAR. In conclusion, the majority of stable fractures about a TAR required operative fixat…
 
Residual supination of the midfoot during reconstruction of the stage II adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) is often addressed with a medial cuneiform (Cotton) osteotomy after adequate correction of the hindfoot valgus deformity. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between postoperative alignment of the media…
 
Rotational ankle fractures can present with an array of possible osseous and ligamentous injury combinations in reliable anatomic locations. What accounts for these different injury patterns and whether specific patient and injury factors underlie the different injury patterns is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether causative…
 
As the popularity of total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) increases and indications expand, surgeons require a better understanding of which patient factors are associated with implant failure. In this study, we aimed to use a large total ankle database to identify independent risk factors for implant failure at mid- to long-term follow-up. This is among…
 
Although advances in joint-replacement technology have made total ankle arthroplasty a viable treatment for end-stage arthritis, revision rates for ankle replacements are higher than in hip or knee replacements. The questions asked in this study were what can retrieved ankle devices demonstrate about ankle arthroplasty failures and how can understa…
 
The effect of bone mineral density (BMD) on outcomes from total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) has not been studied. BMD can be estimated by measuring Hounsfield units (HU) on standard computed tomography(CT), which is frequently performed prior to TAA. We aimed to identify whether tibial and talar HU measured from preoperative CT scans were associated w…
 
Outcome measures evaluate various aspects of patient health, and when appropriately utilized can provide valuable information in both clinical practice and research settings. The orthopedic community has placed increasing emphasis on patient-reported outcome measures, recognizing their value for understanding patients’ perspectives of treatment out…
 
Overprescription of narcotic pain medication is a major culprit in the present opioid epidemic plaguing the United States. The current literature on lower extremity opioid usage has limitations and would benefit from additional study. The purpose of our study was to prospectively assess opioid consumption patterns following outpatient orthopedic fo…
 
In an effort to minimize narcotic analgesia and its potential side effects, anti-inflammatory agents offer great potential provided they do not interfere with bone healing. The safety of ketorolac administration after foot and ankle surgery has not been well defined in the current literature. The purpose of this study was to report clinical healing…
 
Reconstruction of the stage II adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) often requires the use of multiple osteotomies and soft tissue procedures that may not heal well in older patients. The purpose of our study was to determine whether patients older than 65 years with stage II AAFD had inferior clinical outcomes or an increased number of subsequ…
 
Residual forefoot supination after correcting the hindfoot in stage IIb adult-acquired flatfoot deformity can be addressed with a dorsal opening wedge medial cuneiform (Cotton) osteotomy. The amount of correction is generally judged clinically, and there currently are no preoperative guides that can predict the size of graft needed. The aim of this…
 
A recent publication reported preoperative Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Instrumentation System (PROMIS) scores to be highly predictive in identifying patients who would and would not benefit from foot and ankle surgery. Their applicability to other patient populations is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the validation and gener…
 
Many patient factors have been associated with higher or lower expectations of orthopaedic surgery. In foot and ankle surgery, the diverse diagnoses seen may also influence expectations. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between diagnosis and patients’ preoperative expectations of elective foot and ankle surgery. Diagnosis o…
 
The authors describe a method of collecting patient-reported outcomes (PROs) using computerized adaptive tests (CATs) in a high-volume orthopedic surgery practice with limited resources and no research coordinator. Using tablets to administer CATs and entering the data in the electronic medical record for later retrieval was an effective technique …
 
The purpose of this study was to compare the functional and radiographic outcomes of patients who received juvenile allogenic chondrocyte implantation with autologous bone marrow aspirate (JACI-BMAC) for treatment of talar osteochondral lesions with those of patients who underwent microfracture (MF). JACI-BMAC and MF resulted in improved functional…
 
The historic treatment of Charcot foot arthropathy has been immobilization during the active phase of the disease process, followed by accommodative bracing of the acquired deformity. Evidence derived from modern patient-reported outcomes investigations has convinced many surgeons to attempt operative correction of the acquired deformity with a goa…
 
Over the past decade, total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) has become a mainstay in the treatment of end-stage ankle arthritis. Currently in its fourth generation, the Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement (STAR) is the only 3-piece mobile bearing ankle prosthesis available in the United States. Our current study reports implant survivorship at 15 years a…
 
Capsular interposition arthroplasty is a joint- and motion-sparing procedure that has been shown as an effective alternative to fusion. This study aimed to evaluate patient function and satisfaction after long-term follow-up. The mean VAS for pain was 7.9 preoperatively and 1.8 postoperatively (P = .003). The mean preoperative SF-12 physical score …
 
We present our results with an INBONE I (Wright Medical, Memphis, TN) prosthesis that have a minimum of 4 to 10 years of follow-up and include a preoperative deformity analysis on outcomes. Patients who underwent INBONE I fixed-bearing total ankle arthroplasty demonstrated significant improvement in outcomes at a mean of 5.9 years. Catastrophic tal…
 
Grading systems are used to assess severity of any condition and as an aid in guiding treatment. This study examined the relationship of baseline motion, pain, and observed intraoperative cartilage loss with hallux rigidus grade. Irrespective of the grade, positive outcomes were demonstrated for both fusion and synthetic cartilage implant. Clinical…
 
Foot and ankle surgeons are increasingly relying on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) such as the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) to evaluate treatment options. The objectives of this retrospective cohort study were 2-fold: (1) to examine the AOS instrument using psychometric analysis and (2) to revise the questions on the AOS to improve t…
 
The Ankle Arthritis Score (AAS) is a new patient-reported outcome derived from the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS). This study analyzed longitudinally collected data from a cohort of patients in the Canadian Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (COFAS) Ankle Arthritis Study in order to evaluate whether the postoperative AAS is associated with need f…
 
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